Before you can begin hemodialysis there need to be a way to remove the blood from the body (a few ounces at a time) and then return it. Your arteries and veins are usually too small, so you will need surgery to create a vascular access site.
A. V. fistula (also called an arteriovenous fistula or A-V fistula), which is made by joining an artery and a vein under the skin in your arm. When the artery and vein are joinded, the pressure inside the vein increases, making the walls of the vein thicker & stronger. The stronger vein can then receive the needles used for hemodialysis. An A-V fistula usually takes 4 weeks to mature before it can be used for hemodialysis. The fistula can be used for many years.
A.V graft (also called an arteriovenous graft or A-V graft), which is made by joining an artery and vein in your arm with a plastic tube. The plastic tube is placed under your skin, joining the artery to a vein. The graft is usually ready to use about 3 weeks after the surgery. A-V grafts are usually not as long lasting as A-V fistulas, but a well-cared-for graft can last several years.
A Hemodialysis Catheter, which is inserted into a vein in the neck or below the collarbone for short-term use until your A-V fistula or A-V graft is healed and ready to use. A catheter is not used for permanent access